Earning A Degree From Baker College Online

Earning A Degree From Baker College Online

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Baker College is the largest independent college in the US state of Michigan, a fully accredited, private, not-for-profit career college system founded in 1911. It now houses 13 campuses, and offers worldwide online education focused on job specific training that promises a more personally rewarding career. Baker online is a series of courses and programs made accessible by Baker College via the internet, which links students to the faculty, offers them an opportunity to earn their degrees from the convenience of their own homes, with flexible schedules.

Baker College is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission, in addition to being a member of the North Central Association. The Baker Center for Graduate Studies also carries professional accreditation by the International Assembly for Collegiate Business Education

The Complete List of Online Degrees Offered by Baker Online:

Undergraduate Programs

1. Certificate

• Web Design

2. Associate of Applied Science Degree

• Computer Programming
• Computer Programming – Java Option
• Industrial Technology
• Web Design

3. Associate of Business Degree

• Accounting
• Accounting/Computer Information Systems
• Accounting/Management
• Computer Information Systems/Micro Applications
• General Business
• Human Resource Management
• Management
• Marketing

4. Bachelor of Business Administration

• Accounting
• Business Administration – Accelerated Program
• Finance
• Human Resource Management
• Management
• Marketing

5. Bachelor of Computer Information Systems

• Computer Information Systems
• Project Management and Planning

6. Bachelor of Computer Science

• Computer Science
• Database Technology

7. Bachelor of Health Services Administration

• Health Services Administration – Accelerated Program

8. Bachelor of Web Development

• Web Development

9. Postbaccalaureate Certificate

• Project Management and Planning

Graduate Programs

Master of Business Administration

• Accounting
• Finance
• General Business
• Health Care Management
Human Resources Management
• Leadership Studies
• Marketing

Enrollment Requirements:

There are separate specific admission procedures for the Undergraduate and Graduate programs. Before enrolling for a degree program on Baker Online, students are required to have an experience in computer operation, such as loading software, using a word processor etc. There is also a three week online class to review and evaluate all the requirements, as well as introduce students to the Baker Online classroom. Additional courses only come after you have successfully completed this preliminary course, with instructions from a Development Coordinator or Academic Office.

The Blackboard, the Virtual Classroom, and the Asynchronous System:

Baker online uses several methods in their online teaching system.

The internet based “Blackboard” allows students to receive and send information with the instructor, the classroom, other students, and groups. Access to the internet is the only requirement, without the need for special software. The online common meeting area for students assigned to a specific online class is the “virtual classroom”, and each one is designated a unique name to ensure privacy. The “asynchronous” system is not dependant on time or place, and allows you to participate in discussion, read lectures, and complete exams.

The Library:

Baker online students can access and use any of the nine campus libraries, and online resources are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Besides the Baker libraries, Baker online also allows you to browse the library collection of other libraries all over North America, as well as access to downloadable journal articles.

Business Degree Online Programs Fit Everyone

Business Degree Online Programs Fit Everyone

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There are many advantages to receiving a business degree online. For one thing, the area of study is so broad it leaves endless opportunities for employment. It is a wide-open career field, which in turn makes the job search easier and more enjoyable for prospective employees. Whether you are interested in accounting, human resources, management or administration, there is a business program out there that fits a student’s needs.

For many people who went straight into the work force upon graduation of high school, finding ways to advance in their current position is of the utmost importance. One of the ways to do this is by pursuing an advanced degree. A business degree online can give people an advantage over their peers, while offering flexible and customized programs. There are numerous programs and concentrations that are available to people in all areas of the work force. Whether it’s an associate’s degree or a bachelor’s degree, there are programs designed to fit the working individuals needs.

One program available with a business degree online is an accounting specialist program. Often times these courses of study are two-year programs allowing students to obtain their associate’s degree. This particular program is aimed at those who are currently working in the accounting field and want a refresher in the material by taking a few new courses.

The area of accounting is constantly changing with new regulations and laws, so it is important for individuals in the accounting field to stay keen to these changes. Those who receive an associate’s degree in an accounting specialist program or another similar program can work as an accounting clerk, personal income tax clerk, professional bookkeepers and many more career fields. Upon graduation students can also become nationally certified as a Certified Bookkeeper.

Another associate’s degree program available with a business online degree is Human Resource Management. The course work in a program such as this prepares students to work in all different kinds of work environments, from government and business to nonprofit organizations and institutions. The course work prepares students to become human resource professionals and handle such duties as filing grievances and handling disputes and dismissals. Individuals who graduate from this type of program can be human resources assistants and specialists among other positions.

There are also bachelor’s degree programs available to those who are pursuing a business degree online. Individuals can receive a bachelor’s degree in Business Administration. This type of program is aimed at both those who just graduated from high school and want to pursue a higher education degree and those who are currently in the work force and would like to advance up the corporate ladder. Students are given the skills and knowledge necessary to be successful in the business world, whether it is in corporate, small business or a nonprofit organization.

A master’s degree is also available to those who would like to further their education beyond a bachelor’s degree. A Masters of Business Administration, or an MBA, is an advanced program guided to help individuals advance in their current position and increases the possibility for a pay raise. Most individuals who pursue this type of business degree online are already in the work force and know what the business climate and corporate culture is like. Therefore, a lot of the course work is aimed at advancing the knowledge that individuals already have and is set in the actual work environment. It helps individuals gain the leadership skills they need to be successful as a businessperson or entrepreneur.

The Importance of Timely and Valuable Asset Management Solutions

The Importance of Timely and Valuable Asset Management Solutions

The need for effective and efficient asset management has given way to a range of asset management solutions. The assets of a company all play significant roles in the achievement of corporate goals, and therefore must be utilized and managed optimally. Asset management in the modern age has become all the more critical, seeing that technological and information changes have shifted the way industry managers and company leaders make vital decisions.

The core of industry asset management

Any organization or industry is held together by assets, both tangible and intangible. The assets of a business can range from the simple, like a piece of furniture, to the more complex and expensive, as in a transport system. The company personnel or human resources can be counted as assets as well.

Intangible assets can include copyrights and patents, as well the digital systems and information circulating within the business and across units. In asset management, the assets of an industry must be made to function optimally and to be maintained in such a manner that decreases costs and maximizes value.

When assets become mismanaged, the industry could suffer seriously. From the equipment to the personnel, the assets and resources of the business must be optimized for better productivity and value. In any organization, knowing the depreciation and the value of fixed assets is important, just as understanding how the work flow systems can be best applied by the employees or the organization personnel.

Simply put, assets should be viewed as profit sources, and it is important for any industry to be able to tap into the money-making potentials of assets. Managers should be able to identify assets from liabilities so as to improve on capital.

The central role of asset management systems

These solutions, or otherwise termed as asset management services, all serve to assist organizations in identifying the assets that they possess and effectively calculate the value that they are able to provide for the company. Presently, these solutions are available in software form, and are available from a host of asset management services providers.

These services are geared towards the effective organization of various asset types, from production and facilities to transportation and human resources. Both the hardware and software resources must be given due importance, seeing that information technology within the company also needs due focus. These management tools also aim to analyze the depreciation trends of fixed assets so as to help industry managers in valuable decision making.

Physical assets need to be estimated according to its depreciation value, and to arrive at a conclusion whether to reinstate or repair the physical asset, whichever is more cost-effective.

What to look for in the best asset management services

There are wide ranging asset management systems offered by vendors presently. It is important therefore to find the one model well-suited to the needs of your company or organization. Asset management can be narrowed down to specific types like investment management, IT asset management, digital asset management, and fixed assets management.

A good asset management system should be able to enhance assets return and minimize costs of operation and maintenance, as well as calculate risk. It should also promote labor efficiency and increase output efficiency. It must also provide information on how to effectively track hardware and software assets and to evaluate their functions both in the short-term and long-term sense.

The realm of business has become more competitive than ever, and with this knowledge, organizations need to keep pace with global competition and shifts in technology through timely and valuable asset management solutions.

Maintaining a Professional Image for Your Home-Based Business

Maintaining a Professional Image for Your Home-Based Business

Most of us can easily list off 5 professional, and consequently unprofessional, business experiences we’ve had recently. Our interaction with these businesses may have been in the form of an email, a retail shopping experience, or a telephone conversation. In several cases, the deciding factor between a professional and an unprofessional experience may have been something so small, so simple, yet so significant.

Running a home-based business often means wearing the hat of everyone from order taker to customer service specialist. A stickler for a ‘professional’ image, I believe it is essential I constantly make myself aware of how clients, contractors and the public are viewing my business practices. As the sole owner of my Virtual Assistant business, I have to – nobody else is going to do it for me!

I’m a firm believer in the K.I.S.S. method of business relations – Keep It Simple, Stupid. The following five points may seem cliché, and ever so simple, but it’s surprising how often home-based business owners forget to take notice of them.

1. Spell check. Whether you are writing an email, creating a brochure of your services, adding text to your website, or writing a thank-you card, double check your work! Just about every program you work in will have a ‘spell check’ function – use it! For projects such as text for my website or brochures featuring my services, I hire a professional editor to review what I’ve written. You may ask, “Isn’t a professional editor going to cost me a lot of money?” No! There are hundreds of Virtual Assistants who, for a surprisingly low fee, will edit your correspondence. It will save you the embarrassment of spelling mistakes, an error which may very well cost you a future customer.

2. The telephone. Have you ever called your favourite retail shop or your local notary public to hear them answer, “Hello?” No? Neither have I. Businesses answer their phone stating their business name, as should you! Unfair or not, some potential customers have a negative preconceived notion about home-based businesses, so let them know from the moment they call that you are a professional organization. Ensure your answering machine or voicemail clearly notes your business name, and directions for leaving a message or alternate contact information. If your business line is also your home line, instruct others in your home how you want calls answered during business hours. Also explore the option of getting a smart ring number or a voicemail system with multiple mailboxes.

3. Professional documentation. Business cards, brochures, emails, website content, faxes, written quotes and RFPs. Always give out typed, clean-looking, professional documentation with your company contact information. If budget allows, hire a graphic designer to create your company’s brand image so you keep a consistent branding with all of your correspondence. Lots of Virtual Assistants have a background in graphic design, and offer these services. Not in the budget just yet? There are easy-to-use software programs with template designs, which you can customize with your own information and flair.

4. Mind your manners. Smile when you are on the phone. Say please and thank you. Treat each and every phone call and email with this kind of care, and you will surely see repeat customers and referrals. Let customers know you appreciate their patronage. A sincere “thank you for your business” will go a surprisingly long way. Dealing with a home-based business is often a new experience for customers. Show them your level of professionalism by keeping your manners in check.

5. Know your policies, your product, your business. It is most unprofessional when the owner of a company does not know the answer to a question about their business. When someone asks for a quote, they are expecting an answer of how much your business will charge to provide them with a service. Potential customers don’t want to hear how you’re just redoing your pricing and you’ve never done this before but think $40/hr sounds fair. They don’t want to hear that now you have people sign a contract because once upon a time you didn’t sign one and you were never paid for that assignment. You are the professional. Give clear answers to the inquiries you receive about your service offerings, pricing, policies, etc.

Just be mindful. Operating a new or home-based business of any kind is certainly a lot of work, and a continuous battle to gain confidence from customers who may well be used to dealing with larger, potentially more established businesses/industries. Step up to the plate, be mindful of your professionalism, and others will be confident in hiring your services, or purchasing your products.

Business Process Outsourcing

Business Process Outsourcing

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Business process outsourcing used to be exclusively
implemented by manufacturing firms but today, even
service-oriented firms have been benefiting from them.
Business process outsourcing or BPO refers to
activities or functions that are contracted to a third
party to reduce costs, improve productivity and
efficiency, and achieve greater innovation.

Types of Business Process Outsourcing Various
functions of a business can be outsourced. What they
are will depend on your company’s strengths and
weaknesses and its projected benefits.

Customer Relations Management This is arguably the
activity that’s most commonly outsourced by both
manufacturing and service-oriented firms. Indeed, a
huge majority of the BPO industry is composed of call
centers specifically tasked to handle customer
relation needs of client firms.

Equipment Rather than invest in equipment that they
will only occasionally use, companies prefer to
outsource their need for expensive equipment by
renting them instead. Whereas outsourcing agreements
are commonly long-term for customer relation
activities, outsourcing equipment needs are commonly
done on a per-project basis.

Finance and Accounting In dynamic and highly
competitive industries, companies need to focus more
on product development and whatever aspect of their
business that serves as their core competency. Because
of this, the company has lesser time to concentrate on
administrative functions like finance and accounting.
Most companies choose to outsource finance and
accounting functions to continue devoting most of
their attention in improving organizational strengths.

Human Resources One of the best examples of
outsourcing human resources activities is the Bank of
America. For quite some time now, the well-known
banking company has relied on Exult, a BPO human
resource vendor, for all its HR needs.

HR management is not something that just about any
manager can handle as it deals directly with people
and all related issues. Recruitment, compensation, and
performance evaluation are just some of the many key
activities in HR that have direct impact on an
organization’s ability to achieve its goals.

Logistics Logistics refer to the management process of
all materials and goods used and produced by the
business. Typical functions making up a company’s
logistics include but aren’t limited to product
allocation, scheduling, and forecasting, inventory
control, and order entry.

A small fashion designing business may choose to focus
on designing products and then outsourcing its entire
logistics needs to a BPO vendor that’s well-versed and
more experienced in handling such activities.

Supply Chain Management Also known as SCM, this
process involves the planning, implementation, and
control of supply chain functions. Logistics is a part
of supply chain management. Common problems in SCM
include distribution network configuration, inventory
management, integration of information, distribution
strategizing, and cash flow management. For companies
to enjoy success in outsourcing their SCM functions,
they must be prepared to involve their partners in
local and central activities to a certain extent.

Security Finally, most companies nowadays choose to
completely outsource their security needs, regardless
of their preference for automated or human-managed
security. Security is a highly specialized field. An
advertisement firm would hardly know, for instance,
what the best security measures are in cases of

By outsourcing security needs to the appropriate BPO
vendors, companies are rest assured that their assets
are under strict protection of professionals. No
longer having to worry about security concerns,
companies may then concentrate more on other and
pressing activities.

Business process outsourcing is not exclusive to big
businesses and corporations. Your small business can
benefit from BPO, too, if you know the right
activities to outsource.

Human Rights Take Front And Center For The New York City Schools

Human Rights Take Front And Center For The New York City Schools

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child put forth that one primary purpose of schools is to develop respect for human rights and the fundamental freedoms that all children should enjoy. They noted that to truly understand and promote human rights, one has to live them out in relation to others.

The New York City schools has taken this directive seriously and to heart by creating its School for Human Rights, a combined middle and high school academy that is built around the concept of human rights. It is one of nearly 150 small public schools opened through special initiatives in the last three years by the New York City schools, having opened its doors in September 2004. During the New York City schools’ school year 2005-2006, the School of Human Rights had over 180 students.

Located in Brooklyn, the School for Human Rights is rare, even for the New York City schools. Its core values are dignity, respect and responsibility, which is the driving force behind its curriculum, how the students learn and the teachers teach, how they treat one another, and the types of adults the New York City schools hope the students become. Human rights are demonstrated to students by how the school meets the educational needs of each and every student; in its practices, such as discipline with dignity; examples given in class, questions raised by teachers, the active discussions, critical thinking and reflection that are part of the project-based coursework; and even in the human rights enriching field trips.

The School of Human Rights is the only New York City schools that integrates an academic and social skills-based curriculum. It even immerses human rights into its extracurricular activities, such as film festivals and workshops with human rights defenders.

The School of Human Rights challenges the New York City schools students to become compassionate and socially engaged young adults, who are committed to equality, dignity and social consciousness. Amnesty International USA, Human Rights Education Association, and New Visions for Public Schools, who have partnered with the New York City schools and made this school possible, hope to see many of these New York City schools’ students carry over what they learn into their adult lives, as well as to enter social justice careers.

The New York City schools based the School for Human Rights on UNICEF’s framework to:

• Recognize the rights of every child;

• See the whole child in a broad context, in the home environment as well as at school;

• Be child centered, ensuring the psychological and social well being of each child;

• Be gender sensitive and girl friendly by eliminating stereotypes and constraints to education, while promoting achievement;

• Promote quality learning outcomes;

• Base education on each child’s unique identity, previous school experience, community, and family;

• Promote New York City schools’ student rights and responsibilities within the school environment, including ensuring inclusion, respect and equality of opportunity for each child;

• Enhance New York City schools’ teacher capacity, morale, commitment and status, and

• Be family focused.

To ensure the School of Human Rights teachers have the resources and professional development they need, the Human Rights Education Association provides this support to the New York City schools. Teachers have found that the most difficult task is presenting human rights in a meaningful and empowering manner, making human rights more than an abstract concept.

The School of Human Rights is unique and will empower its students beyond what is found in other public schools.

Microsoft Great Plains Manufacturing – before you jump there – advices to IT specialist

Microsoft Great Plains Manufacturing – before you jump there – advices to IT specialist

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In this small article we would like to try to save your company software and services money. As the result of recent economic recession, many companies here in the USA have now outsourced or in process of outsourcing manufacturing routines abroad and are still using manufacturing applications for data entry. Some of our clients had strange situation when they had more people for manufacturing data entry than real manufacturing workers. Our strong advice is – consider using simple bill of materials with probably some advanced reporting instead of going for full featured manufacturing application/module purchase. Yes, as many clients indicated – they just needed advanced reporting, something like Microsoft Great Plains Bill of Materials / Inventory control based Crystal Reports. And Crystal Reports is only k$0.5 software plus you could find Crystal Report designer for reasonable price.
Let’s go to the topic.
Microsoft Great Plains is main Microsoft Business Solutions product, targeted to mid-size companies. Currently Microsoft is in progress of transforming several ERP products it has: Microsoft Great Plains, Solomon and Navision into several business suites – Microsoft Financial, Microsoft HR, Microsoft Manufacturing, Microsoft Logistics. These suites may be (in the future) put together and work for your company as integrated ERP solution with web interface (Microsoft Business Portal). If you are midsize company with some manufacturing – you should make the research on light manufacturing packages available on software market. In the case of your commitment to Great Plains (if you use it as your accounting system) you should probably first answer this question – do we need full featured manufacturing or we should implement just bill of materials and have missing functionality be filled with custom Crystal Reports and light Dexterity customization? And one more thing to consider – Microsoft Manufacturing will be more likely build on Navision manufacturing base. If you have process manufacturing – you should not implement GP manufacturing – it is discreet manufacturing.
If you answer yes on most of these questions, you do need manufacturing
Do you need Manufacturing Resource Planning?
Are Cost Centers required?
Do you base your production on the specific Sales Order?
Do you track working shifts and allocate the cost?
Now – this is what you can have in Bill of Materials
Samples bills of materials – to do the replacement of the items
Purchasing configuration, based on ABC codes and other criteria
Historical bills reporting
With Crystal Reports you can have this information, having just Bill of Materials
Sales/profitability by customer, item, region or custom criteria
Future Sales predictions, based on your criteria
Employee time and cost allocation
Simple Cost Centers, based on product line, specific order or other user defined information
Good luck with your research – we are here to help with Bill of Materials or recommend the best GP Manufacturing partner! If you want us to do the job – give us a call 1-630-961-5918, 1-866-528-0577! help@albaspectrum.com

The Solution to Pollution – Sustainable Power

The World Health Organization, The U.N., and governments from all over the world are now concerned with pollution. You hear celebrities calling a call to arms, to unite against pollution. A media frenzy on how polluted the whole planet is the event of the decade.

Pollution causes instability, discomfort, disorder and harm the environment and the people living in it. There are many kinds of pollutants it could be noise, energy, light, heat, and worst chemical.

Sources Of Pollution

There are two kinds of pollution source; the point source pollution or the non point source pollution. Point source pollution is aptly named because the source is readily identifiable and may be singled out. Usually a point source only affects only a single span of area or space while the non point source will affect a larger area. Non point pollution usually affects water bodies. It’s so severe that nothing will be able to reverse the damaging effects.

A History Of Pollution

If you believe that reverting to a “traditional” way of life will reduce or at least slow down the effects of pollution then you’re wrong. The moment fire was discovered, and metal grinding was used pollution ensued. Even human wastes probably some polluted areas since the Paleolithic times, its just that at that time nature dwarfs human actions giving it a period to recover.

Pollution gradually increases as humanity evolves and society develops. In fact glacier slices in Greenland show pollution in connection with the ancient Mesopotamian, Greek, roman and Chinese era. A closer study showed that pollution increases with the rise in the utilization of metals. With the decline of any human social progress the middle ages showed a slow pollution progress; although, pollution was generally concentrated in pocketed areas like cities.

The gradual increase of populations and the widespread use of industrial processes saw the materialization of a civilization that is slowly but surely creating a negative impact on nature. It was inevitable that pollution would get so severe that people would finally notice that the environment is slowly degenerating. The industrial revolution paved the way for total environmental pollution as we know it today

A Declaration

Unknown to a lot of people, the issue of pollution is not one that’s been discovered during the 19th century. During the 9th towards the 13th century Arabic writings regarding pollution were already prevalent.

The first medium of action in which the western society first notice was so basic and simple that it is literally all around us: air. Pollution as a cause became popular towards the end of world war II when the effects of atomic testing and the atomic bomb became undeniable destructive. In 1952 great smog descended upon London prompting the death of more than 8,000 people. This event precipitated legislations sanctioning the use of coals and other polluting energy resources prevalent in those days.

Over time, the growing pollution made people realize that the main cause of nature’s demise is our relentless use of energy. This gave rise to environmentalism and the quest for sustainable power. Energy is an integral part of the human world. We cannot live without energy; our very existence depends upon it. That is why it is imperative that we find alternate energy resources that will never be exhausted and will not harm the environment as time goes by.

Can Slow Growth Boost Outsourcing?

Can Slow Growth Boost Outsourcing?

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It is no secret that more and more companies are moving their projects outside of the company walls by using outsourcing and freelance services to complete the projects. This move has made it possible for companies the world over to remain profitable in the face of economic downturns. This speaks directly to the benefits to be had when outsourcing projects to freelance professionals from all over the world. So many people are skilled in certain areas that they hardly ever use, mostly because they took a job in the world that was outside of their qualifications in order to survive in the failing economy that is plaguing the world. This is not uncommon. Those with degrees in electronics and their inner-workings are especially prone to this because of the cut throat market that reigns. Upon graduating, these people will most often take a job that has little to do with the education they have received. This is a huge waste of resources as many companies will not hire such persons because they have little or no skills in the real world.

Barring a complete and total makeover of the way that companies hire professionals, the only chance these people have is to take on freelance jobs that have been outsourced by a company in need of such services. This is becoming common place in this world as freelancing takes a hold and makes it mark on the professional world. Outsourcing is rapidly becoming the best way for companies to save money in light of the downturn that the economy has taken. Little can be gained by these companies when they attempt to keep the projects in house. Moreover, they stand to lose substantial amounts of money by attempting to hire and train someone for the project when you take into consideration all the benefits and salary that must be paid to persons that work inside the company. Outsourcing does away with the need for such benefits by hiring professionals from outside the company walls to make certain that the project is completed in a timely and efficient manner without the large costs involved in training someone for the project.

The beauty of outsourcing lies in the simplicity of it all. The freelance professionals that are available for outsourcing the projects are already trained in the inner-workings of the project. This saves the company not only time but money in the long run. The fact remains that hiring a professional for full time work is not productive in most cases when the project is a one time thing that may lead to the possibility of more work but does not guarantee as such. This means that a company may only benefit from a person’s knowledge once and never again. Then if they have already hired such a person then they are required to put into place a full time salary and benefits package that will cost them more than the project is worth in the end. So in essence the company has wasted the valuable resources they have when it comes to a one shot project that is not guaranteed to bring in any long term profits for the company. That is where the outsourcing of projects comes into play. Instead of hiring a full time employee with long term pay and benefits, the company takes part in outsourcing by opening the bidding floor to qualified freelance professionals who will bid for a one time flat fee for the project.

Under the outsourcing system, freelance professionals bid and are awarded the project based on their individual merits and the price that they have bid for the project. If they have the skills required then they simply complete the project in exchange for the pay that is agreed upon. That is the only connection that the freelance professional that is hired for outsourcing has to the company and can make no claims to the company for more than the agreed upon pay. This is all done in the comfort of outside locations. This means that the person does not have an office inside the company and is not subject to any benefits that the other employees of the company enjoy. This in itself has saved the company a lot of money.

When you take all the factors into consideration you see that outsourcing is the way to go for a lot of things. Many companies are finding that they can run with a surprisingly low number of employees on their payroll as compared to previous years when they use outsourcing as their main method of completing projects especially when it comes to those things that require special training and knowledge that is not taught in the base education of the employees that they regularly hire. There is the possibility that many companies will find improved profit margins in relation to the former bottom lines that they once thought to be too low. In the essence of good business decisions, more and more companies are outsourcing their projects in an effort to streamline their business with an eye to the future.

There is much to be gained by outsourcing the projects that a company needs completed. All over the globe there are people who are highly skilled but not using those skills in their normal jobs. This is a tragedy to many who know that these professionals can be tapped to provide valuable services to the companies all over the world that are spending millions of dollars more than they should be to get the work done that is so vital to the company.

Most of the knowledge that can be found in the freelance professionals of the world that take part in outsourcing is mandatory for the companies of today. So much is relied upon by these companies and it is of the utmost importance that they work to maintain a higher profit margin in an effort to boost the world out of the recession that it currently is in to provide the best work possible for their customers. In the end if there are no customers than there is no business and they need to find cheaper ways in which to maintain an airtight business without harming that which is important to them.

Outsourcing is the only solution to the problem as more and more companies are struggling and laying off workers in an effort to remain profitable. They will notice a 50% decrease in costs when outsourcing takes place on the projects that can be completed by freelance professionals. If the economy continues on the downward spiral than a great loss of jobs is not far off in the horizon. This speaks directly to the need for outsourcing of the projects that companies need to the freelance professionals of the world who can get the job done at a fraction of the cost and normally within a shorter amount of time than originally conceived. To maintain this type of business most companies will benefit in a short period of time when they outsource the projects to those who do not operate in house.

Furthering the cause of outsourcing is of vital importance to all those who need the work completed in a timely manner and with the professional quality that so many can bring to the table.

Immortality and Mortality in the Economic Sciences

Immortality and Mortality in the Economic Sciences

Roberto Calvo Macias, a young author and thinker from Spain, once wrote to me that it is impossible to design a coherent philosophy of Economy without accounting for the (sad?) fact that we are mortals. This insight is intriguing. It is not that we refrain from Death in dealing with matters economic. What are estate laws, annuities, life insurance policies – but ways to cope with the Great Harvester? But this, admittedly, only scratch the non-profound surface of the question.
The industrial revolution taught us that humans were dispensable. The process of production was reduced to minute functional units that people could learn in minutes. Only the most basic skills were required to successfully endure this learning curve. Thus, for as long as humans bred, the supply was inexhaustible. Humans became entirely replaceable, interchangeable (and alienated, in the process). Motion pictures of the period (“Metropolis”, “Modern Times”) portray the industrial worker as a nut in a machine, driven to the verge of insanity by the repetitiveness of his work.
Yet, this view of human resources is fast becoming extinct in the rich Western countries. Training periods have lengthened, expert knowledge has taken over, the main value added is information. Humans represent a sizeable investment in education. They are no longer an inexpensive resource .With this realization, there came about a revolution in economic relations. Absurdly, inhuman totalitarian regimes (especially Fascism and Communism) were the first to emphasize the importance of the human factor in the total set of means of production. The concept of scarcity was extended (by virtually all the economic systems today) to apply to human resources.
All resources are scarce. Economy is the science of trading off: giving up one resource in order to get more of another. The concept of “opportunity cost” is the first that students of economy encounter. The classic approach included natural endowments in the group of scarce resources. The human element was barely perceived as yet another natural resource. Now it is. The size of the population, its life expectancy, its quality of life, health, education, income – are all important.
Economy is the branch of psychology which deals with behaviour patterns and with mental processes which relate to material wealth, with the opportunities to obtain it (=access to it) and with the processes and mechanisms underlying its attainment. Because material wealth can be expressed quantitatively, this specific branch acquired a “mathematical” nature, a twist not present in other branches of the human sciences. As such, it is highly surprising that so little formal thought was given to the issue of mortality (which is what makes the human resource scarce).
The legal profession is positively obsessed with Death. This is why economic activities are relegated to separate legal entities. The founders of a company are mortals – the company itself, immortal. This is why the concepts of last wish, legal testament, estate and inheritance are so strong: they survive the person, they have an existence all their own. Economic theories, on the other hand, generally assume that humans are immortal and that their economic activities and legal entities which embody them have an infinite horizon. To some extent, this is justified by people’s behaviour and by observing the social institutions that they form. People engage in very long term activities even when they are very old. No 80-year old inventor will give up his royalties just because he long surpassed his life expectancy and is about to die imminently. This is true even if he has no off-springs. No businessman will stop accumulating wealth just because he has enough for two lifetimes. No consumer will cease consuming simply because he has all that he needs to properly function. The life expectancy horizon is ineffective because w all deny the prospect of death. This denial mechanism is exceedingly strong in all of us – we suppress the fact that we will die one day and that many of our activities, efforts, battles and pursuits look absolutely outlandish from this vantage point. So, economy mimics and reflects human defensive mechanisms: it is long term, infinite in scope.
Surprisingly, as Mr. Calvo Macias commented, the more temporally finite the organization – the more dynamic it is. Religious establishments, which ostensibly trust in the after-life (a form of immortality) – are procedurally rigid, ossified, frozen. This is also characteristic of states. The longer their past and the longer their perceived future (the Reich of a Thousand Years) – the more morbidly paralysed these entities and their institutions. Dynamism is closely associated with finiteness and with the perception of mortality when it is coupled with rebellion. The rebel does not accept his own imminent demise. He fights back by being dynamic, that is, through the process of creation. The battle between creation and death is drawn along the lines of mortal fear.
And, so, we can distinguish two types of economic players: those who accept death and those who reject it. The first type is characterized by fear and anxiety as the driving force – the second by deep seated denial and false confidence.
Those aware of their mortality display a decrease in economic activity with the onset of old age. They tend to attach a greater weight to their income the more recent it is. They discount future income and attach negligible weights to it. They tend to think short term as they grow older, towards the end of their lives they refrain from any economic activity bar trading, speculation, arbitrage, brokering and investments in financial assets. They become less risk averse as time passes.
Those who deny the crawling end still demonstrate an emotional attachment to wealth and to its accumulation at an old age. They do weigh income in accordance with its expected maturity (the more futuristic the income – the less weight it carries) – but they still attach some weight to it. Dividend Discounting Models in stock valuation assume an INFINITE stream of future dividends, discount it, add the results to get the CURRENT price of a stock. Stock in the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) are trading now at a p/e (price to earnings) multiple of 18. Assuming a 35% average tax on dividends and on capital gains – this means a person has to wait 28 years to recoup his investment. Taking into consideration risk free income (the interest payments that the person could have received had he invested the money in Treasury Bonds) – the effective multiple is really 60 and above. Investors are willing to wait 60 years and more in order to receive their money back plus a reasonable return. This is the quintessential denial of the finiteness of life.
These two types clash and conflict. As they do, they generate the very fabric of market economies as we know them today. Players are trading risks, speculating, investing in projects, buying stocks – all based on a hidden philosophies of life and death. It is this that we trade amongst us when we do: our own mortality.